Padden and Ramsey  drew similar conclusions defining English ability via a collection of subtasks from the Stanford Achievement Test adapted for deaf participants.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The sign recently in ASL requires a subtle sideward head turn and tensed cheek muscles cf.
We examined the key assumption in both theories, that L2 proficiency reflects L1 proficiency, as well as the ways in which L1 proficiency constrains L2 learning with the Unified Competition Model in mind.
Liddell, ; Coerts, ; Wilbur, whereby the upper face includes movements of the eyes and brows, and has been grammatically associated with larger units of prosody phrases, clauses, utterances whereas movements and positions of the lower face and mouth have been associated with smaller prosodic units, such as the syllable and prosodic word Wilbur, ; Brentari and Crossley, To begin each trial, the signer presented a short story.
As such, we propose that non-reflexive English pronoun sentences may be difficult for signers due to the potential for ambiguity in these constructions, which does not map clearly onto ASL pronouns. Non-reflexive and reflexive pronouns exist in both ASL and English: while ASL uses spatial cues, inflections on agreeing verbs and even eye gaze to bind a pronoun or reflexive to its antecedent, in English this is achieved through a syntactic relationship.
Further evidence for distinctive representations of grammatical and affective non-manuals is based on neuropsychological studies, which demonstrate that grammatical facial expressions are processed in the left hemisphere, whereas affective facial expressions activate areas in the right hemisphere of the brain cf.