Indo sino borders

From tothe "Postal Atlas of China", published by the Government of China in Peking had shown the boundary in Aksai Chin as per the Johnson line, which runs along the Kunlun mountains.

india china border dispute pdf

The boundary in Aksai Chin is as per the Johnson line. What should we do?

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However they took no steps to establish outposts or assert actual control on the ground. Pre-Simla British map published in shows the so-called "Outer Line" as India's northern boundary.

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A series of statements from each countries' respective External Affairs ministries were issued defending each countries' actions. The boundary in Aksai Chin is as per the Johnson line. In , four monastic officials from Tibet arrived in Tawang and supervised a boundary settlement with Major R. Petersburg , gave maps of the region to George Macartney , the British consul general at Kashgar, which coincided in broad details. In the Indian claim, the two armies would be separated from each other by the highest mountains in the world. Postal Map of China published by the Government of China in China and India shared a long border, sectioned into three stretches by Nepal , Sikkim then an Indian protectorate , and Bhutan , which follows the Himalayas between Burma and what was then West Pakistan. In August , the People's Liberation Army took an Indian prisoner at Longju, which had an ambiguous position in the McMahon Line, [11] [22] [42] [45] and two months later in Aksai Chin, a clash at Kongka Pass led to the death of nine Indian frontier policemen. Messenger Chinese and Indian competition on their shared Himalayan border is more likely to create a slow-moving environmental catastrophe than a quick military or nuclear disaster. At its western end is the Aksai Chin region, an area the size of Switzerland, that sits between the Chinese autonomous region of Xinjiang and Tibet which China declared as an autonomous region in The border preferred by British Indian Empire, shown in two-toned purple and pink, included the Aksai Chin and narrowed down to the Yarkand River. They claimed that territory south of the high ridges here near Bhutan as elsewhere along most of the McMahon Line should be Indian territory and north of the high ridges should be Chinese territory. Since the British were not able to get an acceptance from China, Tibetans considered the MacMahon line invalid. This boundary was confirmed in a 1 June note from the British General Staff in India, stating that the "present boundary demarcated is south of Tawang, running westwards along the foothills from near Ugalguri to the southern Bhutanese border. However, the maps were not updated and still showed the Johnson Line. Neville Maxwell states that McMahon had been instructed not to sign bilaterally with Tibetans if China refused, but he did so without the Chinese representative present and then kept the declaration secret.

The boundary, marked with a thin dot-dashed line, matches the Johnson line [16] :pp. However, Chinese officials denied any trespassing having taken place. According to Francis Younghusbandwho explored the region in the late s, there was only an abandoned fort and not one inhabited house at Shahidulla when he was there — it was just a convenient staging post and a convenient headquarters for the nomadic Kirghiz.

Nehru in had privately told G. The Chinese troops held their fire as the Indians retreated, and then buried the Indian dead with military honours, as witnessed by the retreating soldiers.

The Himalayan plateau plays a crucial role in Asia. Indian troops marching to Thag La had suffered in the previously unexperienced conditions; two Gurkha soldiers died of pulmonary edema.

indo china war
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India is still losing to China in the border infrastructure war