Discuss May Electromechanical Bythe United States Navy had developed an electromechanical analog computer small enough to use aboard a submarine. It is not too great a stretch to say that, in the Jacquard loom, programming was invented before the computer.
Bell Labs Relay Interpolator is completed George Stibitz circa The US Army asked Bell Laboratories to design a machine to assist in testing its M-9 gun director, a type of analog computer that aims large guns to their targets.
Changing its function required the re-wiring and re-structuring of the machine. For easy replacement, designers placed each transistor circuit inside a "bottle," similar to a vacuum tube. Mathematician George Stibitz recommends using a relay-based calculator for the project.
ByApple and IBM had come out with new models. By the mids, nearly half of all computers in the world were IBM s.
Early digital computers were electromechanical; electric switches drove mechanical relays to perform the calculation. They had to solve all the heady problems of developing such a device, of implementing the design, of actually building the thing. It was believed that ENIAC had done more calculation over the ten years it was in operation than all of humanity had until that time.
Transistors, however, had their problems too.
News of the groundbreaking electronic ENIAC computer that same year inspired the group to change course and attempt a digital solution, whereby flight variables could be rapidly programmed in software. By inserting a card punched with holes, an operator could control the motion of the rods and thereby alter the pattern of the weave.